Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, also known as total anomalous pulmonary venous return, is a rare cyanotic congenital heart defect in which all four pulmonary veins are malpositioned and make anomalous connections to the systemic venous circulation. (Normally, pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium where it can then be pumped to the rest of the body). A patent foramen ovalepatent ductus arteriosus or an atrial septal defect must be present, or else the condition is fatal due to a lack of systemic blood flow.[citation needed]

In some cases, it can be detected prenatally.[2]

There are four variants: Supracardiac (50%): blood drains to one of the innominate veins (brachiocephalic veins) or the superior vena cava; Cardiac (20%), where blood drains into coronary sinus or directly into right atrium; Infradiaphragmatic (20%), where blood drains into portal or hepatic veins; and a mixed (10%) variant.[citation needed]

TAPVC can occur with obstruction, which occurs when the anomalous vein enters a vessel at an acute angle and can cause pulmonary venous hypertension and cyanosis because blood cannot enter the new vein as easily.[citation needed]

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